خانه / تمرین واژگان / Antonyms (متضاد ها)

Antonyms (متضاد ها)

Antonyms ( متضاد ها) موضوع این قسمت از آموزش زبان انگلیسی هست که بهش می پردازیم.

            An antonym is a word that has the opposite meaning of another word

antonym یک کلمه هست که معنای مخالف کلمه دیگری را دارد.

 

Male……Female                               man……woman

Marry…..Divorce                    mature…….Immature

Maximum……Minimum                    Melt……Freeze

Negative……positive                            Night…….day

Noicy……Quiet                                         Old……New

Old……young                                           Pass……Fail

Patient…….Impatient                    Plural……singular

Polite……Rude                               Polite……Impolite

Possible……Impossible                 Private……Public

Push……Pull                                Regular…..Irregular

Rich……Poor                            Relevant…..Irrelevant

Right……Left                                       Right……wrong

Risky……safe                                        Sad……Happy

Safe……Dengerous           Satisfied……Dissatisfied

Seller……Buyer                                 Simple……Hard

Single……Married                  Synonym……Antonym

External……Internal                                 Fall……Rise

Fast…..Slow                                               Fat……Thin

Fat……Skinny                                         Few……Many

First…..Last                                    Forgive……Blame

Forward……Backward                         Funny…….Sad

Giant…….Tiny                                 Give……Receving

Healthy……Sick                                  Heaven……Hell

Up…….Down                                           Win…….Lose

Heavy……Light                                Husband……Wife

Identical…..Different              Increase…..Decrease

Inside…..Outside                             Junior……Senior

Large……Small                                        Laugh…..Cry

Lazy……Diligent                                  Legal…..Illegal

Like……Dislike                                   Lock……Unlock

Long……Short                                       Loud……Quiet

Major……Minor                                   Tough……Easy

Able……Unable                              Above……..Below

Absebt………Present                  Accept…….Decline

Accept……..Refuse                  Achieve…….Fail

Admit……..Deny                   Admit…….Reject

Against…….For                  Agree……Disagree

Alive…….Dead                   Alone……together

Always……..Never                 Ancient…….Modern

Answer……..Question                          Small……Big

Soft……Hard                         Arrive……Live

Ascend…….Descend                    Ask…….Answer

Attack…….Defend                 Awake…….Asleep

Bad…….Good                      Beautiful…….Ugly

Befor……After                          Begin…….End

Behind…….In front of                        Best…….Worst

Big…….Little                          Birth……Death

Bitter…….Sweet                        Black……Withe

Interesting……..Boring                    Start…….Finish

Boy……Girl                            Buy…….Sell

Carefull……Carless            Expensive……Cheap

Cheerful……Sad                      Child…….Adult

Chilly…….Warm                      Clean…….Dirty

Cleaver…….Stupid                          Cold……Hot

Discomfort……Comfor   Incompelet…….Compelet

Complex…….Simple                     Cool……Warm

Correct……Incorrect                Correct……wrong

Crazy……Sane                   Create…….Destroy

Dark…….Bright                       Dark…….Light

Dawn……Sunset                  Difficult……Easy

Downwards……Upwards                          Dry……Wet

Dusk…….Dawn                      Easy……Hard

Enter…….Exite                 Exited…….Board

Exhale…….Inhale               Export…….Import

Exterior…….Interior                     Tall…….Short

 

Everyone knows what an antonym is. Or do they?

Hot and cold? Fine… But do big and small excludebig and little, large and small or great and small?What about large and little?  These matches are decided by how we use the words on a day-to-day basis — by culture and usage.

Over and under, above and below, up and downare clearly antonyms. But if Fred livesoverthe hill, is the opposite ofoverstillunder? If “the game isover,the opposite must be that “the game hasbegun,” not that “the game isunder.” So what is going on here?Clearly, a particular antonym of a word relates to a particular sense of that word. Context tells us which sense that should be.

So, if the “up” sense of over has the antonymunder, why doesn’t above also have under as its antonym? — it means the same thing (has the same sense) in this context.  George Miller, the cognitive scientist and founder of the lexical databaseWordNet, realised that antonymy is a relation between words, not their senses — so synonyms don’t (usually, at least) share their “antonymy” — hence above and over don’t share their antonyms.

  1. antonyms of a word are decided by culture and usage

  2. context decides which antonym is correct

  3. synonyms share senses but usually not their antonyms

This does not prevent the synonyms of antonyms from being shared:

over => under {aneath, subjacent, lower, below,subordinate to, ‘neath, beneathunderneath, nether, inferior}

above => below {under heaven, here below, under the stars, alow, subordinate to, in hell, under the sun, beneathunder, short of, underneath,beneath the sky}

And of course there are exceptions, especially in natural language, for every rule… 

درباره ی Niusha

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معنی set off

معنی “set off” موضوع این قسمت از زبان علم است که میخواهیم به معانی، تاریخچه …

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